Positive Reinforcement is when a reward is given for a desired behaviour. It is the same principle in humans (children and adults alike) as it is in non-humans. Given the right opportunity’s and rewards learning can progress to incredible levels. Punishing children or animals on a regular basis reduces their confidence and willingness to try. I say ‘on a regular basis’ because most animals are forgiving and accept that everyone makes mistakes, but if you repeatedly make the same mistakes they can start to lose trust in you (negatively impacting your bond) and belief in themselves. Consider how happy you might be to receive a promotion at work as recognition for all your hard work and how being told off or criticised puts you off trying. Reward based training (doesn’t have to be food) increases the bond between participants and encourages a desire to learn. The link above takes you to videos of rats playing basketball and bees that have learnt to pull a piece of string to receive their rewards. This principle is a key focus of my children’s book Vera & Bob.